Sunday, March 19, 2006
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dir is a Somali clan whose members live in northern Somalia.
The Somali people are composed of four major tribes. The Dir, Hawiye, Darod, and Rahanweyn make up the majority of Somalis. The Dir are the most ancient Somali clan, and they are the most widespread group. They primarily live in Djibouti as the Issa and Gadabuursi. The northern clans of the self-declared Somaliland, namely the Isaaq, Gadabuursi,and Issa are also all Dir. In Ethiopia, the Dir clans are also the most numerous Somali clan group.
Southern Dir groups claim direct descent from Hiil, Samaale, Aji, Irir, who was the direct father of Dir. One of the brothers of the Dir included the Digaale and the Hawiye.
According to the Dir clan histories, Dir had four sons named Madahweyn, Mandaluug, Madoobe, and Mahe Dir; according to others Dir had a fifth son named Qaldho Dir.
The Dir in Ethiopia are represented by the Gariir, Gurgure, Guure, Layiile, and Akisho groups (all of which are part of the larger Madaxweyn Dir group), along with Issas, Jaarso, Quranyo Maxamed, Gadabuursi, Gadsan, Fiqi Muhumand, Qubeys, Mandaluulg, Baajimaal, and Wardaai. The majority live in the Dira Dhabe area, Jijiga region, and by the Awash River. The rest of the Ethiopian Dir clans live in southern parts near the Somali border near Dollo Ado and as far as Guure Dhamoole and Negele Boran.
In the Mudug region of central Somalia and all the way to Hiiraan region is another cluster of Dir clans known as the Suure. The Suure have been associated with spreading the Islamic faith in Somalia and the Qadiriya Sufi tariiqa in southren Somalia. The Suure are among the most influential Dir groups in Southern Somalia, and their territories include large areas of the Mudug and Galgaduud regions. Also the Suure have founded major trade cities in the Hiiran area including Alaabay and Kamhanley.
The majority of western scholars (both Italian and British) simply refered to the Surre as the "Dir of central Somalia" without differentiating them, but recent studies in Somalia reveal that the majority of the Dir in Hiiran, Gedo, Jubba and Bakool are divided into two branches, the Qubeyes and Abdalles, both descendents of Suure.
Other branches of the Dir include the ancient Biyamaal Clan who occuppy an area from 50 km south of Mogadishu all the way down to Jilib and Kismaayo, not far from border with Kenya. The Biyomaal of Marka fought against the Italian colonial rulers of Southern Somalia in a twenty-year war known as the Biyamaal Revolt, in which the Dir assassinated several Italian governors.
The Gurgure Dir inhabit the ancient city of Dira Dhawe, which is also inhabited by the Madoobe Dir Issas. The first to arrive were the Gurguras who named the city Dira Dhawe, or "the place that Dir conquered or hit with his spear". Finally, the Issas and other Somali groups followed into the region and the Christian Amharas referred the region to as "Oow-raajaa na Issa na Gurgura" or the region of the Gurguras and the Issas.
Gadsan (or Gaadsan) is one of the largest tribes in Dir, especially the western Dir. They reside mainly in three districts: Liban (Jarrati, Waladaya, Doolow and Guuredhamole), Godey (Iimey and Marole), and Gashamo (Nusdariiq, Marsin, Kabtinuur and Qabridhare). There is also other large population of gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Qalaawileey in the Shabelle and Jubba regions. In Kenya there is a third division of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Kenya, found in many cities such as Bangal, Garseeni, and Holla.
Political groups associated with the Dir clans include the following groups in Somalia and Ethiopia:
Issas and Gurgure Liberation Front (IGF) of Ethiopia.
Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) of the Gadabursi Dir clan.
Somali National Movement (SNM) of the Northern Isaaq.
Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) of the mostly Mohamed Xiniftire Dir Clans (Bimaal, Mandaluug, and Gadsan) of Jubba, Gedo, Bardheere, and Shabeellaha Hoose region.
Democratic Liberation Front (DLF) supported Central Somalia Dir groups.
Gurgure: The Gurgure are divided into three major groups, Habar Daar, Quwaax and Liiban, who are made of many sub-clans:
Reer Aw Said and Abkeey Haji
Maha Dir (Maxamed Xiniftire)
Isaaq (Garhajis, Awal, Arap, and H.Jeclo)
Suure (Qubeys and Abdalle)
Yabarcade Faqi Cumar
Fiqi Walaal (Aw-caalin, Xaaji Cabdalle)
Samafale,Maxamud weyne, Aw-Cisman, Maxamud Yare
Xassan Faqi Cumar
Rooble Cismaan (Faarax, Weheliye, Maxamed)
Aw-Macalin (Macalin Muxumed, Macalin Yusuf, Sheekh Cali, Macalin Macow)
Cismaan Diidshe (Cismaan Iyiinta)
Cabdalle Diidshe (Cabaas Iyiinta)
Yabarow, Xasan, Cumar, Xeefoow
Mandaluug (Mahe) Dir
Issa Madoobe Dir
Fadlan wixii aad ku dari karto ama sixi karto nala socodsii.