Google

Sunday, October 30, 2005

 

Somali Origin

Dir Era
Due to a lack of written evidence of the early history of the Somaal, numerous historical perspectives on the origins of the Somaal have been presented. According to Arab historical sources the ancestors of the Somali people migrated south from the shores of the Red Sea into the Cushitic-speaking Oromo region from approximately the 10 th century, with the Oromos displacing the Bantu-speaking people further south. According to another source based in northern oral history, the Somali are a hybrid group originating in the marriages of two Arab patriarchs to local Dir women, whose descendants migrated from the Gulf of Aden towards Northern Kenya in the tenth century.

Most contemporary scholars however argue that the ancestors of the Somaal came not from Arabia but from an area between southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya and linguists trace Somali to the Cushitic language group. Based on a hybrid of archaeological, anthropological and historical linguistic evidence, it is now widely asserted that the Somaal originated in the lake regions of current day southern Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Malawi, as a sub-group of the Cushitic peoples. In the decades BC, it is believed that the sub-group known as the Omo-Tana moved northwards from the lake highland areas until reaching the Tana river and the Indian Ocean. Some settled along the Lamu peninsula, situated near the northern Kenya and southern Somalia border, while others continued to move northwards into southern Somalia. In southern Somalia patterns of farming and pastoralism provided a mixed economy for the Omo-Tana group that continued to move from the Lamu peninsula into the Somali peninsula. It is here that the initial references to Somaal were asserted. It is believed that by the 1 st Century AD the Somaal, who had continued to migrate northwards, had reached the Red Sea and occupied most of the Horn of Africa. During the 8 th to 10 th Century the movement of Somaal brought them into contact with coastal groups.

It is known that coastal settlements of non-Somali people existed well before the 10 th century. The coastal culture was hybrid, absorbing influences of the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks, Arabs and Romans who came to trade and to tap frankincense and myrrh along the Gulf of Aden and sometimes also to settle. The market town of Zelia (Saylac) dates back to the 6 th century BC, when merchants there traded goods from the African interior such as hides, leopard and giraffe skins, ostrich feathers, ivory, rhinoceros horns and slaves. Coffee came from the Abyssinian highlands to supply a large local market. Saylac later became the centre of the Islamic culture of the northern region; the capital of the medieval state of Adal.

On the whole urban commerce and Islam was more developed in the south. There, coastal towns came into contact with Swahili trading settlements and ships sailing from the Indian subcontinent, China and southwest Asia. By the 9th century Mogadishu was the most prosperous of these towns.

Between the 11 th and 13 th centuries many Somali converted to Islam. During this time, many of the Prophet’s earliest followers fled the Arabian Peninsula to seek refuge in Africa, where the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia often afforded them protection. This penetration from the peninsula sparked another population shift, this time from the coastal areas into the interior. The political unit that developed in the interior from the 13 th century onward that forms a prototype for contemporary political structures was the diya-paying group. In this system groups belonging to the same clan have a contractual alliance that joins them together in payment and receipt of damages to or from another group. These groups are governed by Heer, a social contract that incorporated elements of Islamic law and common laws determined by consensus among the males of the community. In addition Somali songs and poetry took on the social and political importance they retain today, preserving oral histories of the clan as well as expressing political ideas and military ambitions.

During the 14 th century, goodwill continued to exist between the Ethiopian Christian kingdom and the settled Muslims in the Somalia region, since the highlands made the kingdom largely inaccessible for Islamic conversion campaigns. In the early 15 th century, however, the Ethiopian kind Yeshaq invaded Muslim kingdoms in the Adal region forcing them to relocate to current day Djibouti. During the 15 th and 16 th centuries, centralised state systems emerged within the kingdoms of Ethiopia and Adal, with each of the kingdoms fighting off domination by the other. During the 16 th century, numerous retaliation campaigns were carried out by both kingdoms, and the arrival of the son of Vasco De Gama aided the Ethiopians in routing the Muslim operations. By the mid-16 th century, the repeated Ethiopian excursions into Saylac caused trade and the Islamic cultural centre to shift to Berbera, with both these cities falling under the sphere of power exerted by the sharifs of Mocha (in current day Yemen). By the 17 th century, Saylac and Berbera fell under the flag of the Ottoman empire. The continued fighting in the region, caused the locus of power to shift more inland towards the Ujuuraan State, at the convergence of the Shabeelle and Jubba rivers. The power of Ujuuraan diminished with the arrival of the Portuguese on the East African coast.


From the late 15 th century until the early 17 th century migrations brought clans more or less into the regions they occupy today. In the early 17 th century, “Ahmed the left-handed”, with the help of Ottoman troops, conquered a large part of Abyssinia, establishing his capital at Harar.

Between the 16 th and 18 th centuries trade between the interior and the coast increased and clans struggled to establish control over the caravan routes to the Banaadir coast. Eventually, the Somali clans dislodged the Arab-dominated merchant oligarchies in the coastal towns. An exception was that in the early 19th century, the Banaadir coast was nominally controlled by the Omani Sultanate, then based in Zanzibar.

Trading in slaves became significant during that time. Somali landholders had long made use of the slave labour as farming was considered a humble occupation. Bantu-speaking slaves captured in Malawi and Tanzania harvested grain and cotton in the Shabeelle and Jubba river areas. Oromo women and children were used as domestic slaves and concubines.

 

HA LA JOOJIYO BEESHA HORORKA AH

Dir Era


Koofurta Soomaaliya waxay ka koobantahay 12 gobol, hadddii laga reebo gobolka Banaadir, gobolada kale mid walba waxaa dega oo lagu ixtiraama beelo qaas ah, beelahaas oo haddana u kala dega degmo-degmo gaar ah, sidaas daraadeeda beel walba oo Soomaaliya ka mid ah waxay leedahay gobollo iyo degmooyin lagu yaqaanno laguna tilmaamo degaankeeda iyo meesha ay u badantahay beeshasaas. Beel walba waxay leedahay degmadeeda mise tuulooyinkeeda u gaar ah oo ay ku yaallaan hantida maguurtada ah ee beeshaaas, waxay leedahay daaqeeda iyo ceelasheeda u gaar ah. Beel kastana intaas aya lagu aqoonsanyahay laguna ixtiraama.

Inta ay jiraan lana ilaalinayo aqoonsiga iyo ixtiraamka beel walba ay ku leedahay deegaankeeda Soomaaliya kama dhacaan dhibaatooyin keena isku dhac beeleed. Soomaalida, inta miir-qabka ah waxay weligeed ku dadaalijirtey is-xaqdhawridda beelaha si loo ilaaliyo xasiloonida iyo nabadgeliyada deegaanka.

Ha-yeeshe way jiri-jireen marar badan beelo oo intuu miir-qabkoodii yaraado damco inay ku xadgudbaan deegaanka beelo kale, arrintaasna waxay sababa-jirtay isku-dhac beeleed oo dhaliya dagaallo u dhiiga badan ku daato,

waxaana dhici jirtey in kaddib markii dagalladaas ay dad iyo hanti badan kaga hoobtaan labada dhinac, haddana si caadada ahayd markii la dhexgalo beelaha is dilaya, lana joojiyo dagaalka, xaaladda waxay ku soo noqonjirtay sidi ay ahayd ka hor intaysan dhicin dagaallada, taasoo ah in beel walba ay ku soo hari jirtey deegaankeeda lagu yaqaannay, waxyna sidaas dhici jirtey kaddib markii u dhiig badan daatay, oo hanti badan bur-burtay. Labada beelood oo dagaallamay tan gardaran iyo tan laga gardarranyahayba, mid walba waxaa u badanjiray qabuuraha, agoonta, asayga, waxaa ka sii yaraada xoolaha, ha-yeeshee wax fa'iido ah uma kordhi-jirin. Arrintana waxay ku soo harijirtey jug-jug meesheeda ha joogto.

Dagaaladaan kor ku xusan oo ka dhex dhaca beelo deris ah, mise deegaan ahaan isku dhaw, waxaa badi ahaan ka dambeeya oo kiciya dagaalka shaqsiyaad fidni-wadayaal ah oo aqli gaaban.

yeeshee kuwa kiciya daagalladaan o sida an so sheegnay ka dhex dhaca beelo deegaannadooda ay isku dhawyihiin waxaa ka sii daran oo ka shar badan kuwa intay beelahooda hubeyaan kana tegaan gobolkii uu deegaankooda ka tirsana kuna duula gobollo kale oo ka sii fog oo waxba aysan ku lahayn waxna ka oollin waana kuwaas kuwa maanta shidaya dabka ay Soomaaliya ku gubanayso, waxayna doonayaan inay wada qabsadaan gobollada Soomaaliya oo idil. Waxay ku doodayaan in gobol walba ay.

ayaga leeyihiin mise an laga xigin. Koofur Soomaaliya haddii laga reebo gobollada Bari iyo Nugaal, ma jiro gobol aysan ku duulin oo aysan qabsanin, ilaa haddeerna waa duullaan, waa ayaga kuwa dabada ka wada dagaallada ka socda Bay iyo Bakool, waa maleshooyinkooda kuwa haddeer qaska ka wada gobolka Jubbada Hoose, waxayna rabaan inay wada qabsadaan min gobollada dhexe (Mudug-Galgaduud) ilaa Dhoobley oo ah xaduudka Kenya.

Cabdi-Qaasim Salaan, Xasan Daahir Aweys, Yusuf Indhacadde, e Cabdi-Rashiid Ilqeyte waxay mid-mid ahaan mid walba uu si caddaan ah horey u shegeeay inay ayaga beel ahaan ay leyahiin gobolka Sh.Hoose, iyo in gobollada Jubbooyinka in an laga xigin. Ragga kor ku xusan oo ku hubeyey mooriyaanta beeshooda hantida ay ka helaan deegaanka ay haystaan sida Sh.Hoose, waxay doonayaan inay xoog ku qabsadaan kuna si haystaan ilaa Dhoobley si ay gacanta ugu dhigaan beeraha Jilib iyo Jamaama ujeeddaddooda xigtana waa degedda Kisimaayo. Haddaba Soomaali weyn, iyo Dawladda haddeer dhisan haddii aysan iska qabanin intii goori-goor tahay kooxdaan hororka ah iyo beeshodaba, waxaa xaqiiqa ah in Soomaaliya ay qabsandoonto hal beel kuna soo rogidoonto waddanka oo idil nidaam ku dhisan fowdo iyo fool xumo sida haddeer ka jirta gobolka sh. Hoose oo u xoogga ku haysto Indhacadde.

Beelaha dega Sh.Hoose oo degaankooda xoogga ay ku haysato moriyaanta Indhacadde way ku tala jiraan inay iska kiciyaan gumeysiga Habargidir oo ka sii fool xun kana naxariisdaran gumeysiggii gaalada.

Cabdi-Qaasim, Xasan Daahir A. iyo Indhacadde iyo morayaantooda way ka sii arxandaranyihiin gaalada gumeysanjirtay Soomaaliya, waana in layska qabta.

Cabdi-Qaasim iyo raggiisa waxay mar walba soo hadal qaadaan Diinta iyo Shareecada Islaamka ayagoo sidaas ku muujinayo munaafiqnimo weyn iyo been ka sheegid Diinta iyo Shareecada madaama ay doonayaan inay gabbaad ka dhigtaan Diinta si ay u si wataan haysashada gobollada beelaha kale iyo boobka hantida beelahaas.

Dawladdaan dhisan waa inay hal arrin ogaata, taasoo ah in haddii gacan deg-deg ah la siinin shacabka Sh.Hoose si ay isaga saaraan moriyaanta Habargidir inay si weyn u adkaanayso in moriyaanta beeshaas hororka ah laga soo saaro meelaha kale oo ay ka amartaagleeyaan, sida Jubbooyinka, maxaa yeelay Habargidir SH.Hoose waxay ku haysata wax kasta oo ay u baahanyihiin ciidamo dagaallamaya waxay ku haysata biyo iyo baad, waxay ku haystaa bad wax laga soo dejiyo, waxay ku haystaa dad la baado, intaasna waxa ka sii daran waxay haystaa waddada istratejiyada ah oo isku xirta Xamar iyo Jubbada Hoose, waddadaas istratejiyada ah waa tan suuragelisay in maleshooyinka uu hoggaamiyo Gobaale ku noqdaan Barre Hiiraale laf dhuun gashay.

Ilaa intaankor ku xusan ay ku jiraan gacanta Habargidir Somaaliya inteeda kale waxay khatar u tahay inay gacanta u gasho beshaas damaca badan.

Marka waa lama huraan, si Soomaaliya nabad u hesho in la joojiyo dhul ballaarsiga ay wadaan ragga ay madaxda u yihiin Cabdi-Qaasim iyo Daahir Xasan Aweys iyo beeshooda. Si taasi ay ku suuragashana waa in marka hore la xoreeya Sh.Hoose, maxaa yeelay waa gobolkaan meesha ay Habargidir wax walba ku haysato, waana gobolkaan meesha ay ku xirantahay awoodda dagaaleed ee Beeshaas.

Cabdi-Qaasim iyo kooxdiisa madaama ay yihiin reer Mudug mid way wada ogyihiin taasoo ah inaysan Soomaaliya weli uga dhicin in beel xoog ku qabsato kuna waarto deegaan beel kale leedahay.

Haddaba Shabeellaha Hoosewaa sidaas oo kale, Habargidir inkastoo ay xoog ku qabsatay haddana haba noqotee kaddib markuu daato dhiig badan Habargidir kuma waaridoonto Sh. Hoose waa laga soo saaridoonaa Bi'idmi-Laahi Kariim, dhiigga daadandoonana waxaa masuuliyadiisa aduun iyo aakhiraba qaadidoonta beesha deegaan boobka wadda.

Cali Cumar: sablaale1@hotmail.com

Rayigaa waxaa ka musuul ah qoraaga, shabakadda jammaame.com waxay diyaar u tahay inay soo bandhigto qof walba aragtidiisa uu xorka u yahay..oo keli..


Webmaster:- info@jammaame.com
www.jammaame.com

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?

  • Awdal News
  • Cowslafil
  • Djibnet
  • Geeska Afrika
  • Jamhuuriya
  • Jammaame
  • Haatuf News
  • HargeysaOrg
  • Hiiraan
  • Onkod
  • Saylac
  • Shabelle
  • Somaliland Future
  • Somalia Today
  • Somalilandnet
  • Somaliweyn
  • Suxufi
  • Warsid
  • Michael Moore
  • Blogs
  • Africa Unchained
  • Friends of Ethiopia
  • archives
  • 26/10/2005
  • 28/10/2005
  • 30/10/2005
  • 01/11/2005
  • 06/11/2005
  • 07/11/2005
  • 08/11/2005
  • 09/11/2005
  • 13/11/2005
  • 14/11/2005
  • 15/11/2005
  • 23/11/2005
  • 25/11/2005
  • 06/12/2005
  • 31/12/2005
  • 19/03/2006
  • 24/03/2006
  • 01/04/2006
  • 14/08/2006
  • 26/01/2007
  • Nairobi
    HargeisaHargeisa
    BoramaBorama
    MogadishuMogadishu
    AddisAbabaAddis Ababa
    BerberaBerbera
    SheikSheik Mountains
    Somaliland
    Somaliland